Types of yarn

Yarn is continuous strand of fibers grouped or twisted together, sorted by their raw materials, fabrics and places of use. This group of fibers is spun to take the form of a yarn, brought to the desired sizes, and then made ready to be used after twisting and doubling.
As the number-one trade center in the sector, the International Istanbul Yarn Fair brings together visitors and exhibitors, showcasing like a market all these types of yarns at a single place. Cotton yarns, wool yarns, viscose (floss) yarns, silk yarns, textured yarns, organic yarns, regenerated yarns, technical yarns, elastane yarns, acrylic yarns, polyester yarns, nylon yarns, fancy yarns, polypropylene yarns, metallic yarns, hand-knitting yarns and fibers are waiting for visitors at Istanbul Yarn Fair.

Cotton Yarns

Cotton yarn is a variety of yarn made by processing in various machines the fibers collected from cocoon seeds found in cotton plant capsule. Fiber can be categorized as combed cotton, carded and semi-combed. While combed cotton is made of thin and longer fibers, carded is made of thick and shorter fibers. Lastly, semi-combed is made of both combed cotton and carded strand leftovers.
Cotton yarn is also categorized on the basis of its composition properties. Ring yarns twisted by using the regular spinning system and open-end yarns made by rotating the fibers with air pressure are defined as types of cotton yarn by their compositions.
The most important criteria for the fibers used for cotton yarn are degree of cleanliness, rank and average staple lenght.

Wool Yarns

Wool yarns are the type of yarn made of protein-based fibers. These fibers are collected from the hair of animals like sheep and goats. This type of yarn can also be divided into two. While the type of yarn that is high in short fiber ratio and made of uncombed wool fibers is called strayhgarn, the type made of longer wool fibers is called kamgarn.
Fabrics made of strayhgarn yarns are used to produce clothing items like coats and jackets, as well as home textile products like blankets, carpets, and rugs. Additionally, fabrics woven from kamgarn yarns are used to produce quality clothing items like suits, jackets and skirts, as well as fine-knit fabrics and sweaters.

Viscose (Floss) Yarns

Yarns made of regenerated cellulose fiber are called as floss (rayon), and yarns produced from fibers in chapel form are referred to as viscose yarns. Floss yarns look more like silk, whereas viscoce yarns resemble more to cotton. Floss-viscose yarns have a wide range of areas of use in woven and knit fabrics. They are used in ready-made clothing sector and industrial areas, in particular home textile. It is a type of yarn used as lining for top wear, as well as making chic and drapey clothes. 


Silk Yarns

Silk yarn is a type of yarn produced from animal-origin natural fiber that is derived from the cocoons of silk moths. These yarns are processed into the form of yarn after going through specific phases and they consist of very fine, soft and shiny fibers to be used in knitting and weaving. The yarns made from these fibers are used in the production of silk fabric. Silk yarn is very solid and flexible. Silk is a highly valuable and special yarn, used for special embroideries or sewing projects. The most valuable of all natural fibers found in the nature.

Textured Yarns

Textured yarns are yarns that are made of continuous filament threads and that gained curved, voluminous and/or elasticized characteristics through application of air-jet texturing and false twisting processes are named as textured yarns.
Textured yarns have increased physical attributes like elasticity, volume, dehumidification and coverage, thermoplastic properties of which are permanently and definitively modified by various mechanical effects.

Organic Yarns

Organic yarns are made of organic cotton, a quality product, which is found in the nature and not subjected to any agricultural processes. These yarns shall be checked at every stage, starting from land and agricultural activity until the end products reach the end user, and they are certified after reviews.

Regenerated Yarns

Regenerated yarn is a type of yarn produced by recycling textile leftovers and plastic bottle wastes. In the textile industry, regenerated yarns are made from natural raw materials (cellulose or protein) as their initial material, preserving their base molecular structure through chemical processes. Regenerated yarns are produced by reshaping natural polymers with chemical and physical procedures, in filaments, using a fiber spinning method.

Technical Yarns

The type of yarn used in the production of technical textile products is called technical yarns. This type of yarn is categorized by their raw materials, forms and structures. Depending on the type of fiber, they can be classified as synthetic and natural, or discontinuous, plied, cabled, braided and core yarns.

Elastane Yarns

The type of yarn produced from synthetic filament fibers is called elastane yarns. With their extremely high elastic properties, these fibers can be used in combination with other fibers (polyamide, cotton, polyester, viscose, wool, etc.) It is a type of yarn used in the production of woven, narrow woven and knit fabrics. They are particularly used in the manufacturing of swimsuits, stretch clothes and sports clothes for which elasticity is a priority.


Acrylic Yarns

Acrylic yarns are made of acrylic, a synthetic material that can be defined as a type of plastic. Acrylic is a type of fiber that resembles wool the most in terms of their attributes. As a result of the increasing need for wool around the world, arcylic was invented through works carried out to develop an artificial fiber that resembles wool and has the attributes of wool.

Polyester Yarns

This synthetic (fully synthetic) type of yarn is made of polyester fiber. Polyester yarns, a derivative of petroleum, can be manufactured as filaments or by spinning staple fibers. These synthetic yarns that can be used in both textured or non-textured forms occupy a significant place in textile. Polyester have a wide range of areas of use in the manufacturing of woven and knit fabrics. In general, technical textiles are used for any women's and men's clothing, home textile products (curtains, furnishing, etc.) and industrial areas (tents, canvases, sails, etc.).

Nylon Yarns

A synthetic fiber also known as 'nylon yarns' in public, Polyamide is the first synthetic fiber produced in the world. Nylon fiber type is mixed with fiber products. General properties of nylon yarns can be listed as good elasticity, durability to frictions, easy-to-clean and resistance to abrasion.

Fancy Yarns

Fancy yarn is a different type of yarn than the regular yarn structure, with decorative unevenness in color and/or form, made by giving different effects through modification of the raw material, manufacturing and material properties. The type of yarn made to manufacture fabrics that prioritize visual quality. Fancy yarns offer a wide variety as they are related to people's imagination. The most commonly used fancy yarns of present day are loops, locks, piles, knots and plain yarns. 

Polypropylene Yarns

Recognized as the lightest and practical yarn used in the textile industry, polypropylene yarn is also named as pp yarn and polyp yarn. It is in a more advantageous position than any other yarn derivative in terms of nature conversion and reusability. It is a type of yarn which can be supplied with high strength in required ratios. Due to its technical characteristics, it is not only the most preferred and used type of yarn by the narrow weaving sector, but it is also used in many different fields and sectors such as home textile, socks and carpet production.

Metallic Yarns

Metallic yarns are fibers manufactured from metallic alloys, plastic-coated metal, metal-coated plastic, or a core completely covered by metal. Today's metal fiber industry mainly offers fibers in stainless steel, nickel, titanium, copper and aluminium for various applications.
Metallic fibers are manufactured by spinning and refining, as much as possible, bars made of gold, silver, copper, nickel and aluminum minerals. It is manufactured by softening and passing through holed apparatus (nozzles) as in the case of manufacturing other artificial fibers. The roll-shaped fiber is cut in 0.2 to 0.8 mm pieces to form metallic fiber.
The variety of specially-refined mineral fibers that is used as yarn in embroidery is called thread; and the variety that is wrapped on silk, cotton or nylon yarns is called glitter. Metallic fibers are used both in decoration and weaving fancy clothes, and in the manufacturing of shoes, accessories and ribbons. These types of yarns are mostly not used in the entire fabric, but for decorative purposes.

Hand-Knitting Yarns

Knit yarns are manufactured from different fibers and materials. Knit yarns can be made of natural products like 100% organic cotton, natural linen, alpaca, cashmere. Knit yarns can be divided into two, as environmentally-friendly yarns and yarns made of natural fibers. The first one of the knit yarns made of natural fibers is yarns made from cotton and cotton plants. Another natural fiber type is wool. Wool yarns with different weights and textures are transformed into yarns of desired thickness by spinning. Merino wool, in particular, is often preferred. Cashmere is a variety which contains the softest yarns among natural fibers. Silk is another variety of knit yarn made of natural fibers. This yarn variety made of silkworm larvae follows cashmere in unevenness and lightness and it is categorized as luxury yarns.